Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
(2) the zemstvos in the 34 governments of Russia proper, (3) the municipal dumas.
The rules governing elections to the zemstvos were taken as a model for the electoral law of 3906 and are sufficiently indicated by the account of this given below.
The zemstvos were originally given large powers in relation to the incidence of taxation, and such questions as education, public health, roads and the like.
(law of 12/25 June 1890), the zemstvos being absolutely subordinated to the governors, whose consent was necessary to the validity of all their decisions, and who received drastic powers of discipline over the members.