The northern General Assembly and the Cumberland Church, which united with it in 1906, are the only Presbyterian bodies in America that have done anything tangible for Christian union in the last fifty years: the southern Assembly is much more conservative than the northern - in 1866 it suspended James Woodrow (1828-1907), professor of natural science in connexion with revealed religion, for holding evolutionary views, and it declared that Adam's body was "directly fashioned by Almighty God, without any natural animal parentage of any kind, out of matter previously created out of nothing"; and in 1897 it ordered that women were not to speak in promiscuous meetings - and its attitude toward the negro, insisting in separate church organizations for blacks and whites, makes union with the northern bodies difficult; the United Presbyterian Church in North America in 1890 refused to join the union of Presbyterian and Reformed missions in India, and its opposition to instrumental music and to the use of any songs but the psalms of the Old Testament, although this is decreasing in strength, are bars to union; the synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church of North America in 1888 refused to unite with the United Presb y terian Church because the latter did not object to the secular character of the constitution of the United States; and with the general synod of the Reformed Presbyterian Church the synod could not unite in 1890 because the general synod allowed and the synod did not allow its members to "incorporate" themselves with the political system of the United States.
At the Democratic Convention for the nomination of a presidential candidate held at Baltimore in 1912, he led on 27 ballots, and had a clear majority on eight, but he was finally defeated by Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey.
He was nominated for vice-president on the ticket with Woodrow Wilson at the Democratic National Convention in 1912 and was elected.
See articles by Woodrow Wilson (Atlantic Monthly, vol.
"Sovereignty resides in the community" (Woodrow Wilson, p. 1448).
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