Sentence Examples


  • Carbon was joined with silicon, zirconium and titanium, while boron, being trivalent, was relegated to another group. A general classification of elements, however, was not realized by Frankland, nor even by Odling, who had also investigated the question from the valency standpoint.
  • Group III.: B, trivalent; Al, trivalent, but possibly also tetra-or penta-valent; Ga, divalent and trivalent; In, mono-, diand tri-valent; Tl, monovalent and trivalent..
  • Group V.: N, trivalent and pentavalent, but divalent in nitric oxide; P, As, Sb, Bi, trivalent and pentavalent, the last being possibly divalent in BiO and BiC1 2.
  • Group VII.: H (?), monovalent; the halogens F, Cl, Br, I, usually monovalent, but possibly also triand pentavalent; Mn, divalent and trivalent, and possibly heptavalent in permanganates.
  • Group VIII.: Fe, Co, divalent and trivalent; Ni, divalent; Os, Ru, hexavalent and octavalent; Pd, Pt, divalent and tetravalent; Ir, tri-, tetraand hexa-valent.

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