The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east; while nomadic Nogai Tatars and Turkomans occupy the steppes.
The ground has to be thoroughly cleared of stones, manured and trenched, and the corms are planted in ridges.
The former, occupied by the Ergeni hills, is deeply trenched by ravines and rises 300 and occasionally 630 ft.
The latter range is separated from the Karakorum Mountains by the deeply trenched gorge of the Raskem or Yarkand-darya, while the deep glen of the Kara-kash or Khotan-darya intervenes between the upper (Sughet Mountains) and the lower (Kilian Mountains) border-ranges.
Tulips flourish in any good garden soil that has been deeply dug or trenched and manured the previous season.