Decurrens of the Yosemite, and Taxodium europaeum.
Among the types of vegetation which make their appearance in Europe during the Oligocene period may be mentioned the Conifers Libocedrus salicornioides, several species of Chamaecyparis and Sequoia, Taxodium distichum and Glyptostrobus europaeus.
Soc. (1906) (with bibliography); Lawson, " Sequoia sempervirens," Annals of Botany (1904); Robertson, " Torreya Californica," New Phytologist (1904); Coker, " Gametophyte and Embryo of Taxodium," Bot.
In the swamp cypress (Taxodium distichum) the tree assumes a rich brown colour in the autumn, and sheds its leaves together with the branchlets which bear them; deciduous branches occur also in some other species, e.g.
In the Mediterranean region occur Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus Pinea (stone pine), species of juniper, Cedrus atlantica, C. Libani, Callitris quadrivalvis, Pinus montana, &c. Several conifers of economic importance are abundant on the Atlantic side of North America - Juniperus virginiana (red cedar, used in the manufacture of lead pencils, and extending as far south as Florida), Taxodium distichum (swamp cypress), Pinus rigida (pitch pine), P. mitis (yellow pine), P. taeda,P. palustris, &c. On the west side of the American continent conifers play a still more striking role; among them are Chamaecyparis nutkaensis, Picea sitchensis, Libocedrus decurrens, Pseudotsuga Douglasii (Douglas fir), Sequoia sempervirens, S.