He entered the engineer branch in 1838, served in the campaigns in the Caucasus, rose to be colonel, and commanded the sappers and miners at the siege of Kars in 1855.
- These are formed into battalions of pioneers, railway troops, telegraph troops, sappers and miners, &c.; in all II battalions (55 companies) numbering 245 officers and 10,470 men.
He had no adequate corps of sappers and miners, or transport train.
A small battalion of Karens enlisted as sappers and miners proved a failure and had to be disbanded.
No attempt was made to entrench the position systematically, but on the left the 2nd and 3rd Corps made some disconnected shelter trenches and gun-pits, while the 4th Corps in the centre began to improve available cover about an hour before the battle began, and the 6th corps on the right, not yet having received any entrenching tools, could do no more than improvise a few loopholes in the walls of the villages of St Privat and Roncourt with such tools as the sappers could obtain from the inhabitants.
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