In time the original impure copper of the plates becomes replaced by refined copper, but if the plates are initially very impure and dissolve irregularly, it may happen that much residual scrap may have to be remelted, or that some of the metal may be twice refined, thus involving a waste of energy.
Until relatively lately the cast iron for the Bessemer and open-hearth processes was nearly always allowed to solidify in pigs, which were next broken up by hand and remelted at great cost.
- In common practice the cast iron as it runs from the blast-furnace is allowed to solidify and cool completely in the form of pigs, which are then graded by their fracture, and remelted in the puddling furnace itself.
In a very few places the molten cast iron as it issues from the blast furnace is cast directly in these moulds, but in general it is allowed to solidify in pigs, and then remelted either in cupola furnaces or in air furnaces.
- Cast iron naturally has a high carbon-content, usually between 3 and 4%, because while molten it absorbs carbon greedily from the coke with which it is in contact in the iron blast furnace in which it is made, and in the cupola furnace in which it is remelted for making most castings.