The prefects are assisted by departmental councils.
In the Roman empire, after Constantine, the title rector was borne by governors of provinces subordinate to the prefects or exarchs.
The bishops constitute the episcopal synod, the supreme court of appeal, 1 During the long period of proscription, the Roman Catholic Church in Scotland survived in scattered groups; after the Reformation it was at first under the jurisdiction of the English arch-priest, but from 1653 to 1694 it was governed by prefects apostolic and from 1694 to 1878 by vicars apostolic appointed by the pope.
For the Societe de l'Histoire de la Revolution Frangaise, which brought out under his supervision an important periodical publication called La Revolution francaise, he produced the Registre des deliberations du consulat provisoire (1894), and L'Etat de la France en l'an VIII et en l'an IX, with the reports of the prefects (1897), besides editing various works or memoirs written by men of the Revolution, such as J.
Prefects and subprefects are appointed by the state, but the chief civic officials are elected.