About 1750), an able, cruel and unscrupulous man, subdued the neighbouring pashas and chiefs, crushed the Suliotes and Khimarrhotes, and exercised a practically independent sovereignty from the Adriatic to the Aegean.
In the political writings of Reshid and `Akif Pashas we have the first clear note of change; but the man to whom more than to any other the new departure owes its success is Shinasi Effendi, who employed it (1859) for poetry as well as for prose.
KMOrris, ancient KX 7rrns, a thief, a brigand), and during the 16th century the Turkish pashas came to terms with some of them, and these men were allowed to retain their local customs, and were confirmed in the possession of certain districts, while in return they undertook some duties, such as the custody of the highroads.
But the authority of these pashas, strangers to the country, was always precarious.
After some fruitless attempts Turkey ceased to send pashas to Algiers - where they were not allowed even to land - and thus recognized the de facto independence of this singular republic. The authority of the deys, moreover, was scarcely more solid than that of the pashas.