It was inevitable, too, that ancient monarchies should enlist polytheistic conceptions of divine or half-divine men in support of the dynasties; "Seu deos regesve canit deorum Sanguinem," Horace (Odes, iv.
It is true that Puritan austerity and the lack of any strong central authority after Oliver's death produced a reaction which temporarily restored Charles's dynasty to the throne; but it is not less true that the execution of the king, at a later time when all over Europe absolute monarchies "by divine right" were being established on the ruins of the ancient popular constitutions, was an object lesson to all the world; and it produced a profound effect, not only in establishing constitutional monarchy in Great Britain after James II., with the dread of his father's fate before him, had abdicated by flight, but in giving the impulse to that revolt against the idea of "the divinity that doth hedge a king" which culminated in the Revolution of 1789, and of which the mighty effects are still evident in Europe and beyond.
It is, however, to be noticed that absolute monarchies are confined to the east of Europe and to Asia, Japan being the only established constitutional monarchy east of the Carpathians.
Limited monarchies are (with the exception of Japan) peculiar to Europe, and in these the degree of democratic control may be said to diminish as one passes eastwards from the United Kingdom.
Or federated of distinct self-governing units like Germany (where the units include kingdoms, at least three minor types of monarchies, municipalities and a crown land under a nominated governor), or the United States, where the units are democratic republics.
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