The Janissaries (q.v.) belonged to the first category.
He was taken prisoner by the Turks in 1455 and served ten years among the Janissaries, after which he escaped into Hungary.
Emboldened by this success, Selim issued an order that in future picked men should be taken annually from the Janissaries to serve in their ranks.
Hereupon the Janissaries and other enemies of progress rose at Adrianople, and in view of their number, exceeding io,000, and the violence of their opposition, it was decided that the reforms must be given up for the present.
The Janissaries rose once more in revolt, induced the Sheikhul-Islam to grant a fetva against the reforms, dethroned and imprisoned Selim (1807), and placed his nephew Mustafa on the throne.