Defined, and the origins of the hieroglyphs and of their values had not been investigated beyond the most obvious points.
The hieroglyphs was done partly with copper and partly with flint scrapers (P.M.
In the latter age granite surfaces were ground, hieroglyphs were chipped out and polished by copper tools fed with emery; outlines were graved by a thick sheet of copper held in the hand, and sawed to and fro with emery.
A vase of Menes with purple inlaid hieroglyphs in green glaze and the tiles with relief figures are the most important pieces.
The race who first developed it spoke an agglutinative language, and to them was due the invention of the pictorial hieroglyphs which became the running-hand or cuneiform characters of later days, as well as the foundation of the chief cities of the country and the elements of its civilization.