Fertile CrescentFer·tile Crescent
historical crescent-shaped region in the Middle East, extending from the E end of the Mediterranean Sea along the Tigris & Euphrates rivers to the Persian Gulf: significant as the birthplace of several ancient civilizations
A region of the Middle East extending from the Levant across the northern part of the Syrian Desert to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Climatic and ecological conditions in the Fertile Crescent favored the Neolithic development of agriculture, eventually giving rise to such civilizations as Sumer, Egypt, Babylonia, and Phoenicia.
Coined by University of Chicago archaeologist James Henry Breasted.