- ancient kingdom (possibly dating to the 10th cent. ) in NE Africa, on the Red Sea, corresponding to modern Sudan & N Ethiopia (the country)
- country in E Africa: established, 1855: 435,186 sq mi (1,127,127 sq km); cap. Addis Ababa
- Country in Eastern Africa. Official name: Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia.
- (historical) Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the parts south of Egypt and along and east of the Nile
From Ancient Greek Αἰθιοπία (Aithiopia), from Αἰθίοψ (Aithiops, “charred complexion”), from αἴθω (aithō, “I burn”) + ὤψ (ōps, “eye, face, complexion”).