2 Furthermore, the sharp warning against errorists and heretics (xvi.
It is quite true that Paul does not directly attack the speculative position, but rather indicates the practical dangers inherent therein (the denial of the supremacy of Christ and of full salvation through Him); he does not say that the errorists hold Christ to be a mere angel or an aeon, or that words like pleroma (borrowed perhaps from their own vocabulary) involve a rigorous dualism.
Quite apart from the difficulties created by the Tubingen theory, legitimate difficulties were found in the style of the letter, in the speculation of the errorists, and in the theology of the author.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
At this point the letter suddenly swerves' into a passionate warning against some errorists of Judaism (iii.