Unlike the advocate, however, the vice-dominus was at the outset an ecclesiastic, who acted as the bishop's lieutenant (locum tenens) or vicar.
During the Carolingian epoch, indeed, advocatus and vice-dominus were interchangeable terms; and it was only in the 11th century rthat they became generally differentiated: the title of avoue being commonly reserved for nobles charged with the protection of an abbey, that of vidame for those guarding an episcopal see.
At once the malcontents presented their demands in a document known popularly as the Articles of the Barons, more strictly as Capitula quae barones petunt et dominus rex concedit.
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