In 1854 he made his reputation by his doctoral thesis, Sur les combinaisons de la glycerine avec les acides, which described a series of beautiful researches in continuation and amplification of M.
In organic chemistry, his study of the ketones and aldehydes, begun in 1857, provided him with the subject of his other doctoral thesis.
His doctoral thesis at Harvard was published with essays by Henry Adams, L.
The doctoral examination at Bologna in the 13th-14th centuries consisted of two parts - a private examination which was the real test, and a public one of a ceremonial character (conventus) .
1 It should be mentioned that the professors of chemistry of a number of German, Austrian and Swiss universities, have, by agreement, instituted an intermediate examination in that subject which students are required to pass before beginning work on the doctoral thesis.
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