The greater part of the district consists of state land, the cultivators being tenants of government, but there is a certain amount of hereditary freehold.
The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers.
The worst governed part of the peninsula was the south, where feudalism lay heavily on the cultivators and corruption pervaded all ranks.
Thus the cultivators, whether noble or peasant, have not profited much from the change in their economic circumstances brought about by the social emancipation of 1861.
Under them the cultivators are by British arrangements placed in the position of peasant proprietors.