These administer justice in accordance both with French law and, in the case of natives, with Annamese law, which has been codified for the purpose.
Many of the Mosaic laws find parallels and analogies in all ages outside the sphere of Israelite influence, notably in the laws codified several centuries previously by the Babylonian king Khammurabi (see Babylonian LAw).
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
The serfs were liberated entirely from the arbitrary rule of the landowners and became proprietors of the communal land; the old tribunals which could be justly described as " dens of iniquity and incompetence," were replaced by civil and criminal lawcourts of the French type, in which justice was dispensed by trained jurists according to codified legislation, and from which the traditional bribery and corruption were rigidly excluded; and the administration of local affairs - roads, schools, hospitals, &c. - was entrusted to provincial and district councils freely elected by all classes of the population.
Republics consist of codified laws that apply to everyone, regardless of public sentiment.
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