The basal half is dull white, oval in section and coarsely fibrous, the middle part smooth, shining and round, and the tip black.
Rice is hulled and grain coarsely ground in stone querns or by water pestles.
It consists in wet-stamping coarsely crushed ore, settling the sands and slimes produced, and grinding and amalgamating them in steam-heated iron pans with or without the use of chemicals (salt and copper sulphate).
The wall consists of a basis of cellulose, and in some cases readily breaks up into a definite number of plates, fitting into one another like the plates of the carapace of a tortoise; it is, moreover, often finely sculptured or coarsely ridged and flanged.
The wood is coarsely grained, as in all the red-oak group, but harder and more durable than that of Q.