Upon the outbreak of the Prussian Kulturkampf the Left had pressed the Right to introduce an Italian counterpart to the Prussian May laws, especially as the attitude of Thiers and the hostility of the French Clericals obviated the need for sparing French susceptibilities.
Except by the Clericals, who were enraged at the blow thus struck at, the restoration of the popes temporal power, and by the Radicals, who feared both the inevitable breach with republican France and the reinforcement of Italian.
Anti-clericals and freemasons, divorce being regarded not as a social institution but as a weapon against Catholicism.
In October 1904, after the September strikes, the Chamber was dissolved, and at the general elections in November a ministerial majority was returned, while the deputies of the Extreme Left (Socialists, Republicans and Radicals) were reduced from 107 to 94, and a few mild clericals elected.
The chief supporters of the claims of the Ch h papacy to temporal power were the clericals of France and State.
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