Arvense, one of the commonest species, is a troublesome weed in clayey cornfields (see fig.).
The hornbeam thrives well on stiff, clayey, moist soils, into which its roots penetrate deeply; on chalk or gravel it does not flourish.
In central Europe it thrives best in enclosed, preserved waters, with a clayey or muddy bottom and with an abundant vegetation; it avoids clear waters with stony ground, and is altogether absent from rapid streams. The tench is distinguished by its very small scales, which are deeply imbedded in a thick skin, whose surface is as slippery as that of an eel.
It is deeper and more sandy where granite is the underlying rock, deeper and more fertile on the north-western than on the south-eastern mountain slopes, and shallower and more clayey where slate is the underlying rock.
The soil is a clayey or a sandy loam, and very fertile except in the Usar tracts, where there is a saline efflorescence.
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