It contains 1300 great pearls, 400 garnets, 90 amethysts, 300 sapphires, 300 emeralds, 15 rubies, 75 balas rubies, 4 topazes, 2 cameos; the gems, except where they have been replaced, are cut en cabochon.
The year is divided into a dry and wet season, the first from June to December, when rain rarely falls, the streams dry up and the cameos are burned bare, and the second from January to May when the rains are sometimes heavy and the cameos are covered with luxuriant verdure.
Sao Paulo is partly covered by open cameos, and these also serve to augment the maximum temperature.
There are numerous large expanses of level country, the most notable of these being the plains (cameos) of the Tagus valley, and of Aviz or Benavilla, Beja and Ourique, in Alemtejo; the high plateaux (cimas) of Mogadouro in Traz-os-Montes and Ourem between the Tagus and the upper Sorraia; the highly cultivated lowlands (veigas) of Chaves and Valenta do Minho in the extreme north; and the marshy flats (baixas) along the coast of Alemtejo and the southern shore of the lower Tagus.
Several of the varieties are cut into gems and ornaments, balance weights, pivot supports for delicate instruments, agate mortars, &c.; or used for engraving, for instance, cameos and the elaborately carved crystal vases of ancient and medieval times.