The oldest, the Astesana, from Asti in Piedmont, is arranged as a kind of text-book of morality on a scholastic basis; later manuals are merely lists of questions and answers.
Above sea-level, and is a junction for Mortara, Vercelli, Chivasso and Asti; it is also connected by steam tramways with Alessandria, Vercelli and Montemagno.
He was forced to renounce his dominions, and received a castle near Asti, but he escaped to France, and after a series of romantic adventures succeeded in making peace with Venice, who was becoming alarmed at the restless ambition and treachery of Visconti; in 1390 he raised a small armed force and seized Padua, where he was enthusiastically welcomed by the citizens, and for several years reigned there in peace.
Among the best-known wines in Piedmont are the Barolos and the wines of Asti, which are made from a species of muscatel grapes.
At last in 1558 the powers agreed to an armistice, and in 1559 the peace of Cateau-Cambresis was made, by which Emmanuel regained his duchy, but on onerous terms, for France was to occupy several Piedmontese fortresses, including Turin and Pinerolo, for not more than three years, and a marriage was arranged between the duke and Margaret, duchess of Berry, sister of the French king; while Spain was to garrison Asti and Vercelli (afterwards exchanged for Santhia) until France evacuated the above-mentioned fortresses.