Greek mathematician, engineer, and physicist. Among the most important intellectual figures of antiquity, he discovered formulas for the area and volume of various geometric figures, applied geometry to hydrostatics and mechanics, devised numerous ingenious mechanisms, such as the Archimedean screw, and discovered the principle of buoyancy.
Ancient Greek Ἀρχιμήδης (Arkhimēdēs).
- The word parabola was used by Archimedes, who was prior to Apollonius; but this may be an interpolation.
- Archimedes died at the capture of Syracuse by Marcellus, 212 B.C. In the general massacre which followed the fall of the city, Archimedes, while engaged in drawing a mathematical figure on the sand, was run through the body by a Roman soldier.
- According to one story, Archimedes was puzzled till one day, as he was stepping into a bath and observed the water running over, it occurred to him that the excess of bulk occasioned by the introduction of alloy could be measured by putting the crown and an equal weight of gold separately into a vessel filled with water, and observing the difference of overflow.
- The most important are :- Euclid's Elements; Euclid's Data; Optical Lectures, read in the public school of Cambridge; Thirteen Geometrical Lectures; The Works of Archimedes, the Four Books of Apollonius's Conic Sections, and Theodosius's Spherics, explained in a New Method; A Lecture, in which Archimedes' Theorems of the Sphere and Cylinder are investigated and briefly demonstrated; Mathematical Lectures, read in the public schools of the university of Cambridge.
- At Pavia in 1494 we find him taking up literary and grammatical studies, both in Latin and the vernacular; the former, no doubt, in order the more easily to read those among the ancients who had laboured in the fields that were his own, as Euclid, Galen, Celsus, Ptolemy, Pliny, Vitruvius and, above all, Archimedes; the latter with a growing hope of some day getting into proper form and order the mass of materials he was daily accumulating for treatises on all his manifold subjects of enquiry.