Wolff's list is of some historical importance - atheism, deism (a God without care for men) and naturalism (denial of supernatural revelation); anthropomorphism (assigning a human body to God); materialism, and idealism (non-existence of matter); paganism (polytheism); Manichaeism, Spinozism, Epicureanism.
Herder's Spinozism, which is set forth in his little work, Vom Erkennen and Empfinden der menschlichen Seele (1778), is much less logically conceived than Lessing's.
Through all this runs the train of thought resulting naturally from Bruno's fundamental principles, and familiar in modern philosophy as Spinozism, the denial of particular providence, the doctrine of the uselessness of prayer, the identification in a sense of liberty and necessity, and the peculiar definition of good and evil.
As idealism differs from Berkeleyanism in asserting the reality of an " external " world so it differs from Spinozism in asserting the reality of difference within it.
This is implied in the phrase by which it has sought to signalize its break with Spinozism: " from substance to subject."