A historical region of northern Germany. The original home of the Saxons, it was conquered by Charlemagne in the eighth century and became a duchy after his death. Its borders were eventually extended southeastward as the region was subdivided and redivided. The dukes of Saxony became electors of the Holy Roman Empire in 1356, and in 1806 the elector was elevated to kingship but lost half his territory to Prussia in 1815. In 1871 the kingdom of Saxony became a constituent state of the German Empire.