It was a period marked in the first place by the conquests of the Saracens, who began.
In so doing they slur over the real position and the real merit of the Saracens with regard to science and art.
Norman warriors had long before helped the Christians of Spain in their warfare with the Saracens of the Peninsula, and in Sicily it was from the same enemy that they won the great Mediterranean island.
There were no Greeks or Saracens in England; there was no Greek or Saracen skill.
By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to Harun al-Rashid, Nicephorus committed himself to a war with the Saracens.