It was a period marked in the first place by the conquests of the Saracens, who began.
In so doing they slur over the real position and the real merit of the Saracens with regard to science and art.
Against the heathen Hungarians and the Saracens, 3 and incidentally providing a detailed picture of the everyday life of people of high condition.
Under Byzantium it remained nominally until the 10th century, when we find the chief magistrate still bearing the title of apXow.3 In the 8th century 4 (720) the period of Saracen invasion began; but the Saracens never secured a firm footing in the island.
Constructed in 830 a fortified enceinte, called Gregoriopolis, in the eastern portion of the ancient city, and the Saracens were signally defeated here under Leo IV.