In 1864 appeared the encyclical Quanta Cura, together with a Syllabus of eighty of the most important " errors of our time " (see Syllabus).
Quantum theory goes back to a scientist Max Planck who in 1900 presented the theory that energy comes in discreet units called quanta.
Whatever one may think of the cogency of such arguments, it seems safe to conclude that thinkers, who dislike constructive idealism, but accept time and space as boundless given quanta, reach in that way the thought of infinity, and if they are theists, necessarily connect their theism with reflexions on the nature of Time and Space.
But the Catholic party redoubled its violence, and the pope sent out the encyclical Quanta Cura and the Syllabus, especially directed against France.
A composite fermion consists of an electron (or hole) bound to an even number of magnetic flux quanta.