- (US) After the Emancipation Proclamation.
- "By century's end, what has been termed the 'nadir' of southern race relations was in full swing, as racial violence and political and legal setbacks to civil rights began to undo the gains of the postemancipation decade." (John C. Inscoe, Appalachians and Race: "Introduction" 3, 2001)
- "…coal companies conspired with the prisons, court systems, and governments in each of those states to implement one of the more egregious forms of racial exploitation imposed on postemancipation blacks." (John C. Inscoe, Appalachians and Race: "Introduction" 9, 2001)