For all exposed sawfly larvae hellebore washes are most fatal, but they must not be used over ripe or ripening fruit, as the hellebore is poisonous.
The grapes are allowed to remain on the vines some three to four weeks longer than is the case in the Medoc, and the result is that they shrivel up and become over-ripe, and so contain relatively little water and a very large quantity of sugar.
There is also a variety of Pedro-Ximenes, which, however, is not used for making ordinary wine, but for the purpose of preparing the so-called dulce, a very sweet must or wine, made from over-ripe grapes, which, after fortification with spirit, is employed for sweetening other wines.
The grapes are allowed to become over-ripe and are then selected by hand.
The finest varieties of Tokay are made entirely or mainly from Furmint grapes which have been allowed to become over-ripe in a manner somewhat similar to that obtaining in the Sauternes districts.