That which comes into the European market as jaggery or khaur is obtained from the sap of several palms, the wild date (Phoenix sylvestris), the palmyra (Borassus flabellifer), the coco-nut (Cocos nucifera), the gomuti (Arenga saccharifera) and others.
The sap is drawn off from the upper growing portion of the stem, and altogether an average tree will run in a season 350 lb of toddy, from which about 35 lb of raw sugar - jaggery - is made by simple and rude processes.
The flowers also yield a sweet juice which, when boiled down, produces a dark-brown, caramel-flavoured sugar called jaggery.
The bastard date, grown chiefly in the country round Calcutta and in the north-east of the Madras presidency, supplies both the jaggery sugar of commerce and intoxicating liquors for local consumption.
Jaggery production is entirely in native hands, and the greater part of the amount made is consumed locally; it only occasionally reaches the European market.