The most important Hymenopterous pests are the sawflies or Tenthredinidae, which in their larval stage attack almost all vegetation.
No doubt large numbers are devoured by insectivorous birds, mammals and reptiles, but the mortality due to them and other foes sinks into insignificance beside that caused by the persecution of hymenopterous insects of the families Ichneumonidae and Pompilidae, especially of the latter, many species of which systematically ransack the country for spiders wherewith to feed their young in the breeding season.
Among the numerous insects parasitic on the inhabitants of galls are hymenopterous flies of the family Proctotrypidae, and of the family Chalcididae, e.g.
Hartig, Die Familien der Blattwespen and Holzwespen (Berlin, 1860); Walsh, " On the Insects, Coleopterous, Hymenopterous and Dipterous, inhabiting the Galls of certain species of Willow," Proc. Ent.
Mayflies and dragon-flies danced in the sunlight; lizards darted across the paths; and legions of spiders pervaded the grass, many very beautiful - frosted - silver backs, or curious, like the saltigrades, who took a few steps and then gave a leap. There were crickets in infinite numbers; and flies innumerable, from slim daddy-long-legs to ponderous, black, hairy fellows known to science as Dejeaniae; hymenopterous insects in profusion, including our old friend the bishop of Ambato (possibly Dielis), in company with another formidable stinger, with chrome antennae, called by the natives ` the Devil '; and occasional Phasmas (caballo de palo) crawling painfully about, like animated twigs."