county in NW Wales, on the Irish Sea & St. George's Channel: 1,491 sq mi (3,862 sq km)
- A principal area of Wales, to the north-west of the country
- After the withdrawal of the Romans in the 5th century the northern Britons seem to have shown greater determination in maintaining their independence than any of the southern kingdoms and, according to Welsh tradition, Cunedda, the ancestor of the kings of Gwynedd, had himself come from the north.
- 550 by the building of Maelgwyn Gwynedd, prince of North Wales.
- The old British fort, Caer Drewyn, one of a chain of forts from Dyserth to Canwyd, is the supposed scene of Glendower's retreat under Henry IV., and here Owen Gwynedd is said to have prepared to repulse Henry II.
- Of Llangollen, founded about 1200 by Madoc ab Gruffydd Maelor, lord of Dinas Bran and grandson of Owen Gwynedd, prince of Wales.
- Like Alfred of Wessex, Rhodri also built a fleet in order to protect Anglesea, " the mother of Wales," so called on account of its extensive cornfields which supplied barren Gwynedd with provisions.