It is a yellowish oil which melts at - 24° C.; it boils at 143-144° C., but cannot be distilled safely as it decomposes violently, giving nitrogen and ethyl fumarate.
excess phenylalanine is broken down to fumarate and acetoacetate, both of which are part of normal energy metabolism.
Other organisms can use fumarate reductase for ATP production by anaerobic respiration.
Kinetic an crystallographic analysis of the key active site acid/base arginine in a soluble fumarate reductase.
Identification of the active site acid/base catalyst in a bacterial fumarate reductase: a kinetic and crystallographic study.