In 879 East Francia acquired the whole; from 912 to 924 it formed part of West Francia.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
This middle kingdom formed a long strip stretching across Europe from the North Sea to Naples, and embraced the whole of the later Netherlands with the exception of the portion on the left bank of the Scheldt, which river was made the boundary of West Francia.
Lothaire had no heir, and in 870 by the treaty of Meerssen his territory was divided between the kings of East and West Francia.
Thode (1897), Paul Yriarte (1901), Julia Cartwright, Mantegna and Francia (1881).