The development of foliation in shaly rocks is undoubtedly closely akin to the production of cleavage in slates.
The foliation is often parallel to the bedding, but may cross it obliquely or at right angles; or the bedding may be folded and contorted while the foliation maintains a nearly uniform orientation.
The difference between schists and gneisses is mainly that the latter have less highly developed foliation; they also, as a rule, are more coarse grained, and contain far more quartz and felspar, two minerals which rarely assume platy or acicular forms, and hence do not lead to the production of a fissile character in the rocks in which they are important constituents.
The varying texture of this rock, its irregular foliation and jointing, and its ramifying veins of pegmatite give it very unequal powers of resistance.
Calc-schists are usually argillaceous limestones in which a large development of biotite or phlogopite has occasioned foliation.