2 Furthermore, the sharp warning against errorists and heretics (xvi.
At this point the letter suddenly swerves' into a passionate warning against some errorists of Judaism (iii.
The method resembles that of the First Epistle of John, for although the errorists attacked in the latter manifesto are not those of the pastorals, and although the one writer eschews entirely the inner authority of the Spirit which the other posits, the same anti-gnostic emphasis on practical religion and stereotyped doctrine is felt in both.
15-16) leads, by way of contrast, to a sharp prophetic warning against contemporary errorists (iv.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.