Electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) involves the use of an electronic fetal heart rate (FHR) monitor to record the baby's heart rate.
EFM can be used either externally or internally.
Besides EFM and telemetry, which is usually continuous, there is intermittent monitoring using a hand-held Doppler to assess the FHR.
With the introduction of electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in the 1970s, doctors had more information for assessing fetal well-being.
It was assumed that fetal monitoring would transmit signals of distress, thus, the EFM tracing became a legal document.