and clerics, (c) merchants and traders, holding their sessions biennially at Milan, Bologna and Brescia respectively.
He was liberal to the papacy, and was greatly influenced by the eminent clerics with whom he eagerly associated.
They had to be clerics, that is, to have received the tonsure.
Worthy of special note are canon 33, enjoining celibacy upon all clerics and all who minister at the altar (the most ancient canon of celibacy); canon 36, forbidding pictures in churches; canon 38, permitting lay baptism under certain conditions; and canon 53, forbidding one bishop to restore a person excommunicated by another.
(2) Raymond of Sabunde's Liber naturae sive creaturarum (1434-36) bears also the title Theologia Naturalis - but not from the author's own hand,3 though his introduction to the book in question, the Prologue, put upon the Index at Rome for its daring, describes the " book of nature " as " connatural to us," in contrast with the " supernatural" book, the Bible, which belongs to the clerics.