A city of southwest Spain northwest of Gibraltar on the Gulf of Cádiz, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean. Cádiz was founded c. 1100 bc by Phoenicians and passed to the Carthaginians (c. 500 bc ), Romans (third century ad ), Moors (711), and the kingdom of Castile (1262). Its port was a base for Spanish treasure ships after the conquest of the Americas.
Together with Ferrol and San Fernando near Cadiz, the other great naval stations of Spain, it is governed by an admiral with the title of captain-general.
He took part in the revolution of 1868, wrote the "Manifesto of Cadiz," took office as colonial minister, favoured the candidature of the duc de Montpensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.'s first cabinet.
The western emporium known in the scriptures as Tarshish was probably situated in the south of Spain, possibly at Cadiz, although some writers contend that it was Carthage in North Africa.
After two successful voyages, Eudoxus, impressed with the idea that Africa was surrounded by ocean on the south, left the Egyptian service, and proceeded to Cadiz and other Mediterranean centres of trade seeking a patron who would finance an expedition for the purpose of African discovery; and we learn from Strabo that the veteran explorer made at least two voyages southward along the coast of Africa.
Fine crystals occur at Conil near Cadiz; whilst in the province of Teruel in Aragon, sulphur in a compact form replaces fresh-water shells and plant-remains, suggesting its origin from sulphur-springs.