These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
But the anti-Semitic and antiDreyfusard spirit in certain French circles could not easily be quelled even then; and on the occasion of the translation of the remains of Emile Zola (Dreyfus's determined champion) to the Pantheon on the 4th of June 1908, Major Dreyfus was shot at and wounded by a fanatical journalist named Gregori, who was subsequently acquitted by a Paris jury of the charge of attempted murder, his own plea being that he had merely intended a "demonstration."
EMILE EDOUARD CHARLES ANTOINE ZOLA (1840-1902), French novelist, was born in Paris on the 2nd of April 1840, his father being an engineer, part Italian and part Greek, and his mother a Frenchwoman.
Meanwhile, with characteristic energy, Zola was projecting something more important: the creation of a world of his own, like that of Balzac's Comedie Humaine - the history of a family in its various ramifications during the Second Empire.
In 1888 Zola departed from his usual vein in the idyllic story of Le Rive.