They were of an undenominational character and English was the medium of instruction.
Schenectady is the seat of Union College (undenominational), which grew out of the Schenectady Academy (1784), was chartered in 1795, and comprises the academic and engineering departments of Union University, the medical (1838), law (1851.) and pharmacy (1881) departments of which are at Albany, where also is the Dudley Observatory (1852), which is under the control of the university.
Educational institutions of collegiate rank are Beloit College (1846; originally Congregational, now undenominational) at Beloit; Carroll College (1846, Presbyterian), at Waukesha; Lawrence College (1847; Methodist Episcopal), at Appleton; Concordia College (1881; Lutheran), Marquette University (1864, Roman Catholic), and Milwaukee-Downer College (1895; non-sectarian, for women; an outgrowth of Downer College, Congregational and Presbyterian, founded at Fox Lake in 1853), all at Milwaukee; Milton College (1867; Seventh Day Adventist), at Milton; North-western University 0865; Lutheran) at Watertown; Ripon College (1851; originally under Presbyterian and Congregational control, now non-sectarian), at Ripon; Wayland University (1855; co-educational; Baptist), at Beaver Dam; and the following Roman Catholic schools: St Clara Academy (1847; Dominican) at Sinsiniwa, St Francis Seminary (1853) at St Francis, and St Lawrence College (1861, Capuchin) at Mt Calvary.
The Nonconformists contended that no such aid should be given to any school which was not conducted on undenominational principles.
He increased the grant which was made to the Roman Catholic College at Maynooth; he established three colleges in the north, south and west of Ireland for the undenominational education of the middle classes; he appointed a commissionthe Devon commission, as it was called, from the name of the nobleman who presided over itto investigate the conditions on which Irish land was held; and, after the report of the commission, he introduced, though he failed to carry, a measure for remedying some of the grievances of the Irish tenants.