He visited Russia in order to collect documents on the political and economic organization of the Slav nations, and on his return published in the Revue des deux mondes (1882-1889) a series of articles, which appeared shortly afterwards in book form under the title L'Empire des tsars et les Russes (4th ed., revised in 3 vols., 1897-1898).
See Leroy-Beaulieu, L'Empire des tsars, ii.
L'Empire des tsars, ii.
To the conservatives, known subsequently as Old Ritualists or Old Believers, this marked the beginning of the reign of Antichrist (was not 666 the number of the Beast?); but they continued the struggle, conservative opposition to the Westernizing policy of the tsars, which was held responsible for the introduction of Polish luxury and Latin heresy, giving it a political as well as a religious character.
The Muscovite tsars had pursued them with fire and sword.