These dynasties were founded by emancipated mamelukes, who had held high office at court and in camp under powerful amirs, and who, on their death, first became stadtholders for their descendants, and then usurped the throne of their masters.
The younger line became stadtholders of the other states after the extinction of the elder, and were the ancestors of the present royal family of the Netherlands.
Though the stadtholders of the house of Orange-Nassau were of princely rank and intermarried with the royal families of Europe, they were not sovereign princes.
Jacob Cats and Adrian Pauw, in the days of the stadtholders Frederick Henry and William of Orange II.
Court of the Frisian stadtholders; and, like the Hague, it is an exceptionally clean and attractive town, with parks, pleasure grounds, and drives.