In 1852 he became schoolmaster at Cologne; in 1855 privatdozent in philosophy at Bonn; in 1858 schoolmaster at Duisburg, resigning when the government forbade schoolmasters to take part in political agitation.
Where ministers were not available suitable persons (often old priests, sometimes schoolmasters) were selected as readers.
It has a handsome church with twin spires, and training colleges for schoolmasters and theological candidates.
"In former times, your Majesty," he said, "the notion being that mankind were naturally inclined to evil, a system of severity prevailed in schools; but now, when we recognize that the inborn inclination of men is rather to good than to evil, schoolmasters have adopted a more generous procedure."
In southern Mexico the Zapotecas furnish schoolmasters for the village schools.