High land near the banks of the Nile which cannot be reached by canals is irrigated by raising water from the Nile by steam-pumps, water-wheels (sakias) worked by buffalo s, or water-lifts (skadufs) worked by hand.
There are several thousand steam-pumps and over 100,000 sakias 01 shaduji 111 Egypt.
For watering the land by the river banks sakias (water-wheels) are used, oxen being employed to turn them There are also a few irrigation canals.
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