His refusal united all the Jacobins in the project of overturning the monarchy by force.
Years after this, and about fifteen years after the dam was first brought into use, it overturned on its outer edge, at about the level indicated by the dotted line just above the counterfort; and there is no good reason to attribute to the movement of 1884, or to the vertical cracks it caused, any influence in the overturning of 1895.
Directly this occurred, the front part of the wall was subject to an additional overturning pressure of about 35 ft.
The next class of dam to be considered is that in which the structure as a whole is so bound together that, with certain reservations, it may be considered as a monolith subject chiefly to the overturning tendency of waterpressure resisted by the weight of the structure itself and the supporting pressure of the foundation.
Masonry dams are, for the most part, merely retaining walls of exceptional size, in which the overturning pressure is water.