In 1617 the Dutch negotiated with the Iroquois a treaty of peace and alliance.
The situation was modified by the concordat of Bologna, which was personally negotiated by Leo X.
Frederick landed in Calabria, where he seized several towns, encouraged revolt in Naples, negotiated with the Ghibellines of Tuscany and Lombardy, and assisted the house of Colonna against Pope Bonif ace.
He also negotiated treaties for the purchase of the Danish West Indies, the Bay of Samana, and for American control of the isthmus of Panama; but these were not ratified by the Senate.
Two more turns were negotiated and marked and in spite of their slow progress, according to the map they were nearing their goal.