Ivan intervened in 1558 and quickly captured Narva, Dorpat and a dozen smaller fortresses; then, in 1560, Livonia placed herself beneath the protection of Poland, and King Sigismund II.
Similar industries, carried on by similar methods, exist at St Petersburg, Riga, Narva and Odessa.
On the 6th of October he had reached Pernau, with the intention of first relieving Riga, but, hearing that Narva was in great straits, he decided to turn northwards against the tsar.
He set out for Narva on the 13th of November, against the advice of all his generals, who feared the effect on untried troops of a week's march through a wasted land, along boggy roads guarded by no fewer than three formidable passes which a little engineering skill could easily have made impregnable.
From Narva, whence it signalled its approach to the beleaguered fortress, and early on the following morning it advanced in battle array.